Fractal Design Concepts for Stretchable Electronics
Published by (Nature Communications)
Authors: J. Fan†, W. H. Yeo†, J. A. Rogers et al.. Published February 07, 2014
Stretchable electronics provide a foundation for applications that exceed the scope of conventional wafer and circuit board technologies due to their unique capacity to integrate with soft materials and curvilinear surfaces. The range of possibilities is predicated on the development of device architectures that simultaneously offer advanced electronic function and compliant mechanics. Here we report that thin films of hard electronic materials patterned in deterministic fractal motifs and bonded to elastomers enable unusual mechanics with important implications in stretchable device design. In particular, we demonstrate the utility of Peano, Greek cross, Vicsek and other fractal constructs to yield space-filling structures of electronic materials, including monocrystalline silicon, for electrophysiological sensors, precision monitors and actuators, and radio frequency antennas. These devices support conformal mounting on the skin and have unique properties such as invisibility under magnetic resonance imaging. The results suggest that fractal-based layouts represent important strategies for hard-soft materials integration.
Materials and Optimized Designs for Human-Machine Interface via Epidermal Electronics
Published by (Advanced Materials)
Authors: J. Jeong†, W. H. Yeo†, J.A. Rogers et al. Published December 17, 2013
Thin, soft, and elastic electronics with physical properties well matched to the epidermis can be conformally and robustly integrated with the skin. Materials and optimized designs for such devices are presented for surface electromyography (sEMG). The findings enable sEMG from wide ranging areas of the body. The measurements have quality sufficient for advanced forms of human-machine interface.
Ultrathin, Conformal Devices for Precise and Continuous Thermal Characterization of Human Skin
Published by (Nature Materials)
Authors: R. Webb, ..., W. H. Yeo, and J. Rogers et al.. Published September 15, 2013
Precision thermometry of the skin can, together with other measurements, provide clinically relevant information about cardiovascular health, cognitive state, malignancy and many other important aspects of human physiology. Here, we introduce an ultrathin, compliant skin-like sensor/actuator technology that can pliably laminate onto the epidermis to provide continuous, accurate thermal characterizations that are unavailable with other methods. Examples include non-invasive spatial mapping of skin temperature with millikelvin precision, and simultaneous quantitative assessment of tissue thermal conductivity. Such devices can also be implemented in ways that reveal the time-dynamic influence of blood flow and perfusion on these properties. Experimental and theoretical studies establish the underlying principles of operation, and define engineering guidelines for device design. Evaluation of subtle variations in skin temperature associated with mental activity, physical stimulation and vasoconstriction/dilation along with accurate determination of skin hydration through measurements of thermal conductivity represent some important operational examples.
Nanotip Analysis for Dielectrophoretic Concentration of Nanosized Viral Particles
Published by (Nanotechnology)
Authors: W. H. Yeo, H. Lee, J. Kim, K. Lee, and J. Chung. Published May 10, 2013
Rapid and sensitive detection of low-abundance viral particles is strongly demanded in health care, environmental control, military defense, and homeland security. Current detection methods, however, lack either assay speed or sensitivity, mainly due to the nanosized viral particles. In this paper, we compare a dendritic, multi-terminal nanotip ('dendritic nanotip') with a single terminal nanotip ('single nanotip') for dielectrophoretic (DEP) concentration of viral particles. The numerical computation studies the concentration efficiency of viral particles ranging from 25 to 100 nm in radius for both nanotips. With DEP and Brownian motion considered, when the particle radius decreases by two times, the concentration time for both nanotips increases by 4-5 times. In the computational study, a dendritic nanotip shows about 1.5 times faster concentration than a single nanotip for the viral particles because the dendritic structure increases the DEP-effective area to overcome the Brownian motion. For the qualitative support of the numerical results, the comparison experiment of a dendritic nanotip and a single nanotip is conducted. Under 1 min of concentration time, a dendritic nanotip shows a higher sensitivity than a single nanotip. When the concentration time is 5 min, the sensitivity of a dendritic nanotip for T7 phage is 10(4) particles ml(-1). The dendritic nanotip-based concentrator has the potential for rapid identification of viral particles.
Multifunctional Epidermal Electronics Printed Directly Onto the Skin
Published by (Advanced Materials)
Authors: W. H. Yeo, Y. Kim, A. Ameen, J. Lee, L. Shi, M. Li, R. Ma, Y. Huang, J. A. Rogers. Published May 28, 2013
Materials and designs are presented for electronics and sensors that can be conformally and robustly integrated onto the surface of the skin. A multifunctional device of this type can record various physiological signals relevant to health and wellness. This class of technology offers capabilities in biocompatible, non-invasive measurement that lie beyond those available with conventional, point-contact electrode interfaces to the skin
Dielectrophoretic concentration of low-abundance nanoparticles using a nanostructured tip.
Published by (Nanotechnology)
Authors: Yeo WH, Kopacz AM, Kim JH, Chen X, Wu J, Gao D, Lee KH, Liu WK, Chung JH. Published December 07, 2012
Electric field-induced concentration has the potential for application in highly sensitive detection of nanoparticles (NPs) for disease diagnosis and drug discovery. Conventional two-dimensional planar electrodes, however, have shown limited sensitivity in NP concentration. In this paper, the dielectrophoretic (DEP) concentration of low-abundance NPs is studied using a nanostructured tip where a high electric field of 3 × 10(7) V m(-1) is generated. In experimental studies, individual 2, 10, and 100 nm Au NPs are concentrated to a nanotip using DEP concentration and are detected by scanning transmission and scanning electron microscopes. The DEP force on Au NPs near the end of a nanotip is computed according to the distance, and then compared with Brownian motion-induced force. The computational study shows qualitative agreement with the experimental results. When the experimental conditions for DEP concentration are optimized for 8 nm-long oligonucleotides, the sensitivity of a nanotip is 10 aM (10 attomolar; nine copies in a 1.5 μl sample volume). This DEP concentrator using a nanotip can be used for molecular detection without amplification.
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