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Paul Borthwick

Blue Specter Engineering

Ph.D. mechanical engineer specialized in: fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, combustion and heat transfer. The broad set of skills to do the math to plan out a device then head out to the shop floor, roll up the sleeves and get it built! Strong portfolio of R&D experience and a passion for...
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Principal Engineer Technology/Innovation  
Baltimore Aircoil Company, June 2012 to September 2013

Key member of R&D team tasked with developing/improving cooling system components, supplied CFD modeling expertise using Star-CCM+ Multiphysics software. Provided planning, design and labor support for R&D testing laboratory. Developed 2-Phase Evaporating Film CFD model for direct contact industrial heat exchanger product improvement initiative. (operating cost reduction) Developed several 1-Phase CFD models for comparative assays on heat exchange and pressure drop performance for line of products in development.

Guest Researcher  
National Institute of Standards and Technology, July 2009 to March 2011

Supported development of National Carbon Emission Measurement Standard to be used for studies on carbon emissions. Worked closely with Building Fire Research Laboratory (BFRL) and Chemical Science and Technology Laboratory (CSTL). Conducted detailed uncertainty analysis of natural gas fueled carbon dioxide source to develop a measurement standard for carbon dioxide measurement equipment. Provided physical and analytical support for duct flow mapping of the Large Fire Laboratory exhaust system to verify that EPA standards were still within reasonable specifications given current technology. Studied and compared databases owned by US Department of Energy (Energy Information Administration) and US Environmental Protection Agency (Emission & Generation Resource Integrated Database) to establish uncertainty of reported carbon emission measurements.

Principal Engineer  
Teledyne Energy Systems, February 2001 to November 2008

Teledyne Energy Systems, Inc specializes in thermoelectric systems, hydrogen generators and fuel cell systems. In my postion with Teledyne I performed system analysis, FLUENT CFD based fluid modeling and heat transfer analysis. Also highly skilled in use of F-Chart Software Engineering Equation Solver, familiar with MATLAB

Graduate Researcher  
University of Wisconsin-Madison, August 1995 to July 2000

PhD Graduate Researcher conducting research on fuel injection phenomenon in large bore Diesel engines

Research Assistant  
National Institure of Standards and Technology, January 1994 to April 1995

Part time research position in the Building and Fire Research Laboratory. Responsible for radiant and convective heat measurement apparatus fabrication and calibration, data logging and reduction, computer programming (FORTRAN) and laboratory equipment setup and maintenance. Co-authored 3 papers with Drs. Anthony Hamins and Takashi Kashiwagi

Blue Specter Engineering LLC, June 1993 to Present

Blue Specter is a freelance mechanical engineering service with emphasis on fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, heat transfer and combustion problems. Blue Specter has special interest in the development and optimization of energy conversion systems including specialty and high performance internal combustion engines. Blue Specter has recent experience with Star-CCM+ Multiphysics software and previously 12 years experience with Ansys FLUENT CFD software. Blue Specter also maintains skills in Engineering Equation Solver (EES) and MATLAB engineering software packages. For specialty engine development Blue Specter maintains a license for Pro Racing Simulation Software. Blue Specter is a Veteran Owned Small Business

Officer, Pilot  
United States Navy, August 1985 to August 1992

Ranks from Ensign (O-1) through Lieutenant (O-3). Pilot flying Lockheed P-3 Orion aircraft. Assignments included Naval Air Stations (NAS) in Jacksonville, Florida; Corpus Christi, Texas; and Pensacola Florida. August 1985-August 1992.


University of Wisconsin-Madison  
Ph.D., Mechanical Engineering, Jan, 1995 to Jan, 2000
Thesis Title: Fuel Injection Spray and Combustion Chamber Wall Impingement in Large Bore Diesel Engines

The George Washington University  
Masters, Mechancial Engineering, Jan, 1992 to Jan, 1995

University of Wisconsin-Madison  
Bachelor of Science, History of Science, Jan, 1981 to Jan, 1985


Examination of United States Carbon Dioxide Emission Databases     
Published by (Electric Power Research Institute)
Authors: Paul Borthwick, James Whetstone, Jiann Yang, Antonio Possolo.  Published June 01, 2011

Compares annual carbon dioxide emissions from coal fired steam turbine electric power plants obtained by calculating carbon based on fuel used to carbon dioxide emissions reported from Continious Emission Monitoring methods. Comparision helps to establish levels of uncertainty in US carbon dioxide emissions inventory

Quantification of a Precision Point Source for Generating Carbon Dioxide Emissions     
Published by (Electric Power Research Institute)
Authors: Paul Borthwick, Matt Bundy.  Published June 01, 2011

Examines a large natural gas burner as a precision source for carbon dioxide to be used for testing carbon dioxide emissions measurement techniques on an industrial scale. Paper examines sources of uncertainty and their impact on the final uncertainty of carbon dioxide production. After application of techniques discussed in the paper final uncertainty of the carbon dioxide production is less than +/- 1%

Fuel Injection Spray and Combustion Chamber Wall Impingement in Large Bore Diesel Engines     
Published by (SAE International)
Authors: Paul Borthwick, Patrick V. Farrel.  Published January 01, 2002

Using a visible light laser and optically modified single cylinder Diesel engine this paper covered the findings of fuel injection spray behavior over a range of engine operating conditions. While specific mathematical relationship could not be resolved fuel injection penetration shows an inverse penetration distance as a function of both increasing combustion chamber temperature and density.

Fuel Injection Spray and Combustion Chamber Wall Impingement in Large Bore Industrial Diesel Engines     
Published by (University of Wisconsin-Madison)
Authors: Paul Borthwick.  Published August 01, 2000

This is the thesis submitted as part of the requirments for a Doctoral research program. This is the long "War and Peace" version of the paper with a similar title published by SAE International in 2002